Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR), follitropin receptor (FSHR) and lutropin/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) belong to the glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHRs). They are a subgroup of family A GPCRs. This database and website have been designed to function as an information source on GPHR-related topics, collating and linking data from studies on i) naturally occurring mutations and site-directed mutations, ii) structures/structural models. Our aim is to facilitate the focused investigation of GPHRs to reveal new insights into the function and malfunction of these important receptors.


  • is a database for semi-quantitative Sequence- Structure- and Function- Analysis of GPHRs,
  • provides a condensed overview of available information such as mutagenesis data for GPHRs,
  • functional data are converted into unified scaled values to compare and to classify mutagenesis data from GPHR subtypes and different experimental approaches,
  • provides analyses of data by: focused extraction, comparison, projection and mapping on three-dimensional receptor structures and models.

General Aims...

  • linking functional data with structural data for GPHR investigation,
  • contribution to new hypotheses regarding molecular interactions and activation mechanisms,
  • evaluation of data availability (including lack of information) and consistency.

New features...

  • new Complex structures (incl. the bound hormone) are now provided to elucidate the second hormone binding site with its sulfated tyrosine,
  • new Analyze contacts & interactions between hormone and receptor. Try out our new Interface Analysis Tool (at the example of hTSHR with bTSH),
  • new New structural information for the extracellular region (TSHR- and LHCGR- homology models based on FSHR crystal structure) - bridge the gap between LRRD and the transmembrane region,
  • a structure-based search for mutation data,
  • structural morphings between two receptor conformations allow changes in amino acid interactions during activation to be traced,
  • inclusion of double and triple mutations,
  • a 2D - snake-plot-designer for highlighting user-defined residues (helpful for researchers not so familiar with 3D features).


If you use and publish results extracted from the SSFA database, we acknowledge for citing:

Kreuchwig A, Kleinau G, Kreuchwig F, Worth CL, Krause G. Research resource: update and extension of a glycoprotein hormone receptors web application. Mol Endocrinol. 2011 Apr;25(4):707-12.

Kreuchwig A, Kleinau G, Krause G. Research resource: novel structural insights bridge gaps in glycoprotein hormone receptor analyses. Mol Endocrinol. 2013 Aug;27(8):1357-63.

Further SSFA-GPHR related publications are listed here